Basic rules

The articles must be prepared with accordance to our technical requirements and taking our academic ethics code into account. We will reject submissions not prepared according to our requirements.

Before submitting your article, please read and apply the following rules:

  • EASE Guidelines for Authors of Scientific Articles to be Published in English (version of June 2014) explaining in details how to compose a scientific article according to international standards:

Please read the EASE file carefully before your submission!

  • APA Style Manual (6th edition of June 2009) explaining in details how to use and cite references and how to apply linguistic rules while writing in English.

For very detailed submission instructions, including guidelines for authors, and all other information visit our website at:

Article length and format

All submitted manuscripts should not exceed the recommended size in accordance with established rules:

30 000 – 40 000 characters, including abstract, keywords, tables, figures, references, etc.

No article submission or article processing fees are charged. Nevertheless, the fee for each additional 1 800 characters (exceeding 40 000 characters) is 20€. The payment will be transferred to the Publisher’s bank account after the article’s approval for publication.

Only editable formats of text can be sent (doc or docx). We do not accept uneditable formats (e.g. pdf).


  1. Papers should be presented in clear, concise English. Articles written in poor English will be rejected immediately (and will not accepted even for the review process).
  2. We prefer British English (e.g. behaviour, not behavior), this is why we strongly ask authors to use British English.


Article structure and abstract

Divide your article into clearly defined sections in the following format:

Research articles Theoretical articles
1. Introduction
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. 
2. Literature review or 2. Literature review and hypotheses development
A literature survey, revealing all important authors dealing with the topic of the article.
2. Material and methods – including goals, and research methods. Provide how the literature was selected to analysis. Methods of analysis should be described.
3. Material and methods – including goals, hypothesis and research methods. Provide sufficient detail to allow quantitative research to be replicated. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. 3. Literature review and theory development
A very detailed literature survey, revealing all important authors dealing with the topic of the article.
4. Results and discussion
Results should be clear and concise. Discussion should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them.
4. Discussion
Discussion should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them.
5. Conclusions
– including research limitations and recommendations for future research.
Please list all references in alphabetical order. Only references used in the text can be used.
Use at least 4 references indexed in Web of Science!

 Authors must supply a structured abstract on the Article Title Page, set out under the following sub-headings:

  • Objectives
  • Research Design & Methods
  • Findings
  • Implications / Recommendations
  • Contribution / Value Added
  • Article Classification:
    • Research article
    • Theoretical article:
      • Conceptual article
      • Original literature review
  • Keywords (at least 5, maximum 7 words)
  • JEL classification: at least one code (e.g. F22)

For JEL codes please visit:

The title, authors, abstract together with the suggested citation cannot take more than one page, please pay a special attention to fit it to one full page.


Technical Issues


  1. Bullets and Numbering are accepted only in two formats:

- Poland,
- UK,
- USA,
- Scotland.

  1. Poland,
  2. UK,
  3. USA,
  4. Scotland.

Use comma (,) after each line of bullets/numbering, and dot (.) after the last one. In most cases please use bullets instead of numbering! Use each line with the small letter:
There are three factors (Smith, 1999, p. 2):
- education,
- training,
- consulting.
For full sentences, use (.) after each line and start with the capital letter.
Following Smith (2014, p. 22) we applied the following procedures:

  1. Execution of the significance test for individual random effects, allowing to choose between the pooled model, and the model with fixed effects (FE).
  2. Execution of the BP test, allowing to choose between the pooled model, and the model with random effects (RE).
  3. Execution of the Hausman test, allowing to choose between the FE model and RE.

Please remember to provide with references for each bullets and/or numbering before, not after them!

Other Editorial Requirements

  1. Non-English words (including Latin) should be in italics.
  2. Authors are requested to limit formatting commands to bold to the necessary minimum.
  3. Authors are requested not to use underline words at all.
  4. To enclose a quotation use single quotation marks, so use 'quotation' not "quotation".
  5. Commas and periods go outside closing quotation marks.
  6. Please, use high and honest standards for authorship!
    1. If you are referring to the literature you haven’t reached directly and have read it somewhere else, please mention where it was quoted originally: e.g. (Smith, 1976, p. 22) as cited in (Lincoln, 2012, p. 12).
    2. Please refer to the particular author of the chapter in edited books! Don’t quote the editor of the book, but the particular author of the text you are referring to!
    3. Please read the further on ‘Academic Ethics Policy’ and ‘Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement’.

      Data Sources:
  7. Please remember to provide with the detailed source for each data you refer to! e.g. The population of Poland is  38 533 299 inhabitants (GUS, 2014, p. 4).
  8. Never use general source (e.g. Eurostat), but make it as detailed and clear as it is possible (GUS, 2014, p. 4); (Eurostat, htec_trd_tot4) – where ‘htec_trd_tot4’ is the code – used by Eurostat – to identify the exact data you refer to.

  9. Only Latin characters are accepted in both – the main text and the list of references!
  10. Use transliteration to all non-Latin letters in the text (e.g. Cyrillic, Chinese, etc.) including list of references before submitting the manuscript. See:
Original language Latin alphabet (to be used in the article)
Japanese 経済学 Keizai-gaku
Russian Предпринимательство Predprinimatel'stvo
Ukrainian Підприємництво Pidpryiemnytstvo


Graphics and Tables

  1. All Tables/Figures should be numbered in Arabic Numerals (Table 1) and should appear in the body of the manuscript (Figure 1).
  2. Please number all figures as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. (don’t use different names for graphs, schemes, maps, diagrams, charts, line drawings, etc.).
  3. Tables/Figures should have their titles according to the rule ‘What/Who + where + when’ (e.g. Table 1. Inflation rate in the European Union in the years 2004-2010).
  4. All table numbers and titles should appear above each table.
  5. The numbers, titles of sources of all figures should be provided below each figure.
  6. Tables/Figures should be editable, Tables must be prepared in MS Word (file format: doc or docx) and MS Excel (file format: xls or xlsx). Figures should be editable (MS Visio, Corel Draw, MS Word Drawing Module).
  7. Tables/Figures should fit the Journal page – they cannot exceed the size 15.0x21.0 cm (150x210 mm).
  8. At the bottom of each Table/Figure should be indicated the source from which it was taken, or information that it is developed by author.
    For your own original ideas and concepts:
    Source: own elaboration.
    Source: own study.
    If you based your concept on the work of other authors:
    Source: own elaboration based on…
    Source: own study based on…
    Source: own compilation based on…
    Source: own calculations based on Eurostat data available at…
    If you slightly changed the original table please indicated that it is your adaptation:
    Source: adapted from…
  9. Always mention the measures (e.g. in %, in USD).
  10. For empirical surveys always  provide the sampling size (e.g. n = 650). Please note, that we use N for the whole population and n for the sample.
  11. If some abbreviations and acronyms are used in the figures/tables, these should be appropriately described in the main body text of the manuscript where they have been cited/ referenced/ interpreted and well as in the footnotes of the figure.
  12. All Tables/Figures should be of clear quality in monochrome (mono-colour i.e. black, white).
  13. Use clear (white) background in all figures! Don’t use any shadows!
  14. Do not use spatial (3D) charts or diagrams, only simple ones (2D) are accepted.
  15. All Figures have to be submitted in the text as well as in the separate files (source file + file with original look):
    1. Diagrams/Charts: MS Excel + PDF (in order to see how it looks from the Author’s perspective).
    2. Other graphics: source file (MS Visio, Corel Draw, we also accept MS Word but only with the module of drawing!).
  16. Authors may include graphs prepared using other software (e.g., Corel Draw, Statistica, Stata, SPSS, Harvard Graphics) provided they are with the module of drawing/ editing (for example "wmf" or "eps" format, with all the necessary fonts included).
  17. Please align the numeric values in the tables to the right and use a uniform number of decimal places in the data presented in the tables and graphs (we advise max. 3 places after dot, e.g. 1.000, please don’t use 0.0011111).


Numbers, Formulas and Calculations

Mathematical formulas recommendations

  1. Mathematical dependences, their notations in the text and other symbols should be typed in MS Word 2010 – The Equation Tools Design Tab:
  2. Formulas are centred and numbered by Arabic numerals in round brackets and aligned right – all formulas must be numbered, e.g. (1), at the right side. There should be single spacing of one line between the formula and the text.
  3. Matrices are written in square brackets, vectors by bold-regular typeface.
  4. All the numerals, including index numbers, are presented in regular typeface.
  5. Work with a large number of formulas to be prepared as follows: simple formulas (one-level) typed with keyboard, complex formulas (multi-level) should be entered using the equation tools design tab.

    Mathematical numbers and money
    Use New British English (i.e. American English) for numbers: a thousand million (109) is a billion (not ‘a milliard’ as it used to be in Old British English!). For details please see:
  6. DO NOT use dots to separate thousands, millions, etc. (e.g. 32 046; 45 263 721; 741 592 438 526).
  7. Numbers till 10 are usually best written as full words (one, two, three, etc.). 11+ would be written as numbers. There’s no strict rule on this: 11-20 may often also be written as words, but 21+ would almost always be put down as numbers. Be consistent over this: don’t sometimes write twenty but in other places 20.
  8. Money
    1. Do not use graphic signs for currencies. Always use international codes (e.g. USD – American dollar, GBP – pound sterling, EUR – euro, PLN – Polish zloty, LTL – Lithuanian litas, RUB – Russian rouble).
    2. The currency codes placed after the numerical value: 4.99 EUR, 100 USD, etc. Always make clear what currency you’re referring to.
    3. Millions are often abbreviated to m. – for example:
      7m EUR = 7 million EUR
      4.7m USD = 4.7 million USD.
      However, we advise to use full names (million, billion…).

Final Remarks at the End of the Article

  • All submissions must include:
    • name/degree/title/affiliation,
    • corresponding address to ALL authors,
    • ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID)
  • We follow good practice in science and research statement including:
    • contribution share of authors for co-authored articles only,
    • financial disclosure stating all agencies, sponsors or other supporters,
    • revealing all authors and/or contributors supporting the article (we applied rules against guest-writing),
    • acknowledgements in order to thank to all people supporting the article (e.g. all who have contributed to the current state of the article).


..:: REFERENCES ::..

References Quality and Quantity

  1. The bibliography must include more than 10 scientific references.
  2. The bibliography must include at least 4 references indexed in Web of Science.
  3. Recent studies published for last five years must be included in references.
  4. Other than English literature should be kept to the minimum. We advise to use no more than 20% of references written in non-English languages (unless the country-specific article). Articles based only on Your own domestic literature (in your native language, not English) will be rejected.

Reference Style

Please use APA style for referring literature.

For detailed guidelines visit:

Text: All citations in the text should refer to:

  1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication (Smith, 2017).
  2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication, as demonstrated (Alan & Jones, 2010); but in the sentence: Alan and Jones (2010) proved…
  3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by "et al." and the year of publication. Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Put semicolons (;) between multiple works cited.

Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically. Examples: "as demonstrated (Allan, 1996a, 1996b, 1999; Allan & Jones, 1995). Kramer et al. (2000) have recently shown..."

List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication.

Reference to a journal publication without DOI:

Author, A. (Publication Year). Article title. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), pp.–pp.


Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(2), 221–232.

Sanchez, D., & King-Toler, E. (2007). Addressing disparities consultation and outreach strategies for university settings. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(4), 286–295.

Reference to a journal publication with DOI:

Author, A. (Publication Year). Article title. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), pp.–pp.

Chrabąszcz, R., & Zawicki, M. (2016). The evolution of multi-level governance: The perspective on EU anti-crisis policy in Southern-European Eurozone states. Public Governance, 4(38), 17–31.

Reference to a book:

Kidder, T. (1981). The soul of a new machine. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Company.
Gibbs, J.T., & Huang, L.N. (Eds.). (2001). Children of color: Psychological interventions with culturally diverse youth. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

Labajo, J. (2003). Body and voice: The construction of gender in flamenco. In T. Magrini (Ed.), Music and gender: perspectives from the Mediterranean (pp. 67–86). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Please see the attachment:
APA Manual 6th Edition
References / Bibliography / Literature



Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

The author's statement including the copyright notice as well as the statement on ethics and good practice in science (including financial disclosure, ghost-writing firewall, guest authorship firewall) must be submitted alongside the manuscript according to the form provided (see the attachment – author’s statement: PDF, DOCX) as well as to be mentioned on the article title page.

We use the following guidelines:

  1. Articles must be original and cannot include borrowings from other works, which could result in liability of the publisher. Papers cannot infringe any third party rights.
  2. Articles must reveal the contribution of all individual authors in the creation of publications (with their affiliations and contributions, such as information about who is the author of concepts, principles, methods, protocol, etc. used in the preparation of publications).
  3. Article cannot display any signs of ‘ghost-writing’, that is not to disclose the names of authors who have made a significant contribution to the publication of, or otherwise contributed to its creation.
  4. Article cannot display any signs of ‘guest authorship’ that is assigning a person who did not contribute to the creation of publications.
  5. Article must include complete information concerning sources of funding, the contribution of research institutions, associations and other entities (‘financial disclosure’).
  6. Editors and the Publisher will be documenting all forms of scientific misconduct and malpractice, particularly violations of ethics and violations in science. Any such cases will be reported to the employer of the author and to the relevant public and state institutions.

Legal aspects

  1. The author shall receive no remuneration for the publication of the text.
  2. In the case of a paper written by several authors, the author submitting the paper is obliged to seek the agreement of his or her co-authors regarding all the publishing requirements specified above.