Using the Multidimensional Leadership Questionnaire to Analyse the Relationships Between Urban Leadership and the Attributes of Transactional and Transformational Leadership


Objectives: To analyse the relationships between urban leadership and the attributes of transactional leadership
and transformational leadership.

Research Design & Methods: The analysis was performed using the Multidimensional Leadership Questionnaire
from 6th December, 2020, to 7th June, 2021. The surveyed sample comprised mayors of Polish cities, their deputies, and city secretaries (surveyed population: 111; sample size: 48).

Findings: The findings demonstrate a significant link between the leadership behaviours of the mayors and more objective urban performance indicators as perceived by their direct subordinates. Focusing development efforts and activities on those behaviours that most strongly correlate with a wide range of performance indicators, such as idealised influence or contingent reward, may translate into an improved effectiveness of urban authorities. The study also emphasises the importance of maintaining a balance between a variety of leadership styles.

Implications / Recommendations: Building theoretical models to explore the issue of urban leadership will be
critical for future research on urban leadership. Equally essential will be the expanded use of psychometric
indicators in the context of meta-analyses and theoretical models revealing the links that exist between leader
behaviour and various performance metrics.

Contribution / Value Added: The article’s added value is in providing evidence that multifaceted leadership, based
on transactional and transformational leadership traits, is required to ensure the quality of management of complex and dynamic systems, such as large cities.

Article classification: empirical article

JEL classification: H1, H4, H7


urban leadership; transactional leadership; transformational leadership; leaders; performance indicators; complex systems

Alimo-Metcalfe, B., & Alban-Metcalfe J. (2005). Leadership: Time for a New Direction? Leadership, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 51-71.

Andersen, L. B., & Pedersen, L. H. (2012). Public Service Motivation and Professionalism. International Journal of Public Administration 53 (1): 46–57. https://doi:10.1080/01900692.2011.635278

Antonakis, J., Avolio, B. J., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (2003). Context and leadership: An examination of the ninefactor full-range leadership theory using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, The Leadership Quarterly.

Antonakis, J., & Day, D. V. (2017). The Nature of Leadership. SAGE Publications.

Avolio, B. J., & Bass, B. M. (2002). Developing Potential Across a Full Range of Leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Baran, K., & Mazur, S. (2021). Przywództwo w administracji publicznej. Perspektywa zarządzania kryzysowego. Wydawnictwo Scholar.

Baran, K. (2019). Transformational Leadership in Public Administration – the Essence and Use. In J. Kopeć & B. Mikuła (Eds.), Knowledge, Economy, Society. Challenges for Contemporary Economies – Global, Regional, Network and Organisational Perspective (pp. 119–127). Dom Organizatora.

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1994). Improving Organisational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership. Sage.

Beauregard, R. (1995). Theorizing the global-local connection. In P. Knox & P. Taylor (Eds.), World Cities in a World System (1st ed., pp. 232–248). Cambridge University Press.

Bellé , N. (2014). Leading to Make a Difference: A Field Experiment on the Performance Effects of Transformational Leadership, Perceived Social Impact, and Public Service Motivation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 24(1), 109–136. https://doi:10.1093/jopart/mut033

Benington, J. (2011). From private choice to public value. In J. Benington & M. Moore (Eds.), Public Value: Theory and Practice (pp. 31–51). Palgrave Macmillan.

Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. Harper & Row.

Brehm, J. O., & Gates, S. (2010). Working, Shirking, and Sabotage: Bureaucratic Response to a Democratic Public. University of Michigan Press.

Brunner, R. D. (1997). Teaching the Policy Sciences: Reflections on a Graduate Seminar. Policy Sciences, 39(2), 217–31.

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. Harper and Row.

Cerny, P. (1990). The Changing Architecture of Politics. Sage.

Cerny, P. (1997). Paradoxes of the competition state: The dynamics of political globalization. Government and Opposition, 32(2), 251–274.

Cerny, P. (2010a). The competition state today: From raison d’Etat to raison du Monde. Policy Studies, 31(1), 5–21.

Cerny, P. (2010b). Rethinking World Politics. Oxford University Press.

Crosby, B., & Bryson, J. (2005). Leadership for the Common Good. Wiley.

Freidson, E. (2001). Professionalism: The Third Logic. University of Chicago Press.

Gabris, G., Golembiewski, R., & Ihrke, D. (2000). Leadership Credibility, Board Relations, and Administrative Innovation at the Local Government Level. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 11(1), 89–108.

Grøn, C. H., Bro, L. L., & Andersen, L. B. (2019). Public managers’ leadership identity: concept, causes, and consequences. Public Management Review, 22(11), 1696–1716.

Hartley, J. (2018). Ten propositions about public leadership. International Journal of Public Leadership, 14(4), 202–217.

Harvey-Jones, J. (2003). Making it Happen: Reflections on Leadership. Profile Books.

Haus, M. (2004). Urban Governance and Democracy. Leadership and Community Involvement. Routledge.

Heifetz, R., & Laurie, D. (2010). The Work od Leadership. Harvard Business Review.

Hobbs, C. (2019). Systemic Leadership for Local Governance: Tapping the Resource Within. Palgrave Macmillan.

Hochadel, A. M. (2018). Local Leadership in a Global Era Policy and Behaviour Change in Cities. Springer International Publishing.

Hood, C. (1991). A Public Management for All Seasons? Public Administration, 69(1), 3–19. https://doi:10.1111/padm.1991.69.issue-1

Howell, J. M., & Avoiio, B. J. (1993). Transformatlonal leadership, transactional leadership, locus of control and support for innovation: Key predictors of consolidated business-unit performance. Journal Applied Psychology, 78, 891–902.

Jacobsen, C. B., & Andersen, L. B. (2015). Is Leadership in the Eye of the Beholder? A Study of Intended and Perceived Leadership Practices and Organisational Performance. Public Administration Review, 75(6), 829–841. https://doi:10.1111/puar.12380

Jensen, U. T., Andersen, L. B., Bro, L. L., Bøllingtoft, A., Mundbjerg Eriksen, T. L., Holten, A.-L., Jacobsen, C. B., et al. (2019). Conceptualizing and Measuring Transformational and Transactional Leadership. Administration & Society, 51(1), 3–33. https://doi:10.1177/0095399716667157

Johansson, F. (2004). The Medici Effect: Boston. Harvard Business School Press.

Judge, T. A., & Piccolo, F. R. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 755–768.

Koch, R., & Dixon, J. (2007). Public Governance and Leadership: Political and Managerial Problems in Making Public Governance Changes the Driver for Re-Constituting Leadership. Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag.x.

Kwok, N., Hanig, S., Brown, D. J., & Shen, W. (2018). How Leader Role Identity Influences the Process of Leader Emergence: A Social Network Analysis. The Leadership Quarterly,29(6), 648–662. https://doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2018.04.003

Luke, J. S. (1998). Catalytic Leadership: Strategies for an Interconnected World. Jossey-Bass.

Morse, R. S., Buss, T. F., & Kinghorn, C. M. (2007). Transforming Public Leadership for the 21st Century. National Academy of Public Administration.

Nye, J. (2008). Transformational Leaders Are Not Always Better. Christian Science Monitor, March 28.

Nye, J. (2010). The Powers to Lead. Oxford University Press.

Ouchi, W. G. (1980). Markets, Bureaucracies, and Clans. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25(1), 129–141. https://doi:10.2307/2392231

Peters, T., & Austin, N. (1985). A Passion for Excellence: The Leadership Difference. Random House.

Rigg, C., & Richards, S. (2006). Action Learning, Leadership and Organisational Development in Public Services. Routledge Studies in Human Resource Development.

Robbins, S. P., & Coulter, M. (2007). Management (9th ed.). Prentice-Hall.

Sassen, S. (2000). Cities in a World Economy. Pine Forge Press.

Sassen, S. (2001). The Global City. Princeton University Press.

Shmelev, S., & Shmeleva, I. (2009). Sustainable Cities: Problems of integrated interdisciplinary research. International Journal of Sustainable Development, Published Online: July 29, 4–23.

Solace, Skills for Local Government, & Local Government Association (2013). Asking the Right Questions: The Need for Transformational and New Contextual Leadership Skills for Local Authority Chief Executives. JSSC.

Stewart, J. (2006). Transformational leadership: An evolving concept examined through the works of Burns, Bass, Avolio, and Leithwood. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 54, 1–29.

Stoker, G. (1991). The Politics of Local Government. Macmillan.

Tejeda, M. J., Scandura, T. A., & Pillai, R. (2001). The MLQ revisited: Psychometric properties and recommendations. The Leadership Quarterly, 12(1), 31–52.

Tichy, N. M., & Devanna, M. A. (1986). The Transformational Leader. John Wiley & Sons.

Tummers, L. (2013). Policy Alienation and the Power of Professionals: Confronting New Policies. Edward Elgar.

Van Wart, M. (2003). Public-Sector Leadership Theory: An Assessment. Public Administration Review, 63(2) (March/April), 214–228; reprinted in Van Wart & Dicke (2007), pp. 11–34.

Vogel, R., & Masal, D. (2015). Public Leadership: A Review of the Literature and Framework for Future Research. Public Management Review, 17(8), 1165–1189. https://doi:10.1080/14719037.2014.895031

Weber, M. (2002). Gospodarka i społeczeństwo. Transl. D. Lachowska. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Weihrich, H., Cannice, M. V., & Koontz, H. (2008). Management (12th ed.). Mc Graw Hill.

Wright, B. E., Moynihan, D. P., & Pandey, S. K. (2012). Pulling the Levers: Transformational Leadership, Public Service Motivation, and Mission Valence. Public Administration Review, 72(2), 206–215. https://doi:10.1111/puar.2012.72.issue-2

Zacher, H., & Rosing, K. (2015). Ambidextrous leadership and team innovation,. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 36(1), 54–68, DOI:10.1108/LODJ-11-2012-0141


Published : 2023-05-31

Baran, K., Mazur, S., & Prokopowicz, P. (2023). Using the Multidimensional Leadership Questionnaire to Analyse the Relationships Between Urban Leadership and the Attributes of Transactional and Transformational Leadership. Journal of Public Governance, 60(2), 5-20.

Katarzyna Baran
Stanisław Mazur 
Kraków University of Economics   Poland
Piotr Prokopowicz 
Jagiellonian University  Poland


Download data is not yet available.

Open Access, licence: CC-BY 4.0